TERMS OF REFERENCE (TOR) CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMANITARIAN AID DEPENDENCY
NEXUS is a platform for change in response to the contemporary challenges to Somalia and Somaliland. The main goal of NEXUS Consortium is to transform humanitarian, development and peace ecosystem. The consortium, led by nine pioneering Somali NGOs, aspires to advance a locally driven agenda for change by building partnerships between communities, civil society and the public and private sectors as well as through the implementation of integrated and sustainable interventions across the triple nexus of humanitarian, peace and development.
NEXUS core members possess wide-ranging technical capacities and represent communities across all Federal Member States of Somalia and Somaliland. Nexus has two international partners who are committed to the localization agenda – Oxfam and Save the Children – and who will support Nexus during its formative years.
Nexus embodies the next evolutionary step of the Somali aid system, pioneering a locally led approach to delivering integrated peacebuilding, humanitarian and development interventions.
By breaking the silos of humanitarian aid, development and peacebuilding and by creating much-needed spaces for local organizations to lead the way in seeking, scaling and integrating solutions across these sectors, Nexus seeks to identify the root causes of most of the protracted needs of the Somali communities through PRA and aims to enlist the efforts of all member organizations and other like-minded institutions to collectively address them. Among the efforts of Nexus to realize its goals is to address challenges related to dependency on humanitarian aid dependency and climate change.
As a leader for public-private partnerships, Nexus seeks to leverage multidimensional efforts coordinated between local communities, civil society and the public and private sectors to advance a new framework for interventions in the Somali context that includes an integrated, early action emergency response infrastructure and community-based development initiatives that will serve as an entry point for peacebuilding and conflict resolution. Nexus’ approach is ambitious but is grounded in the widely recognized need for more dynamic interventions to the chronic challenges faced by Somalia and Somaliland.
2.Climate change and humanitarian aid dependency
Somalia faces huge challenges that are precipitated by different sets of unfavorable conditions, most notably the over two-decade old political instability which has created toxic environment for a chain of problems that still prove to be a Gordian knot. For over the past two decades, humanitarian organizations have heavily invested in projects that provide basic humanitarian needs of different nature. The aim was to support the displaced and war-affected households to recover and rebuild their lives. The standards of living have deteriorated due to the destabilized livelihoods the communities depended on. Humanitarian interventions providing material support in terms of food, shelter, hygiene and feminine kits, water and services related to health, education and protection among others were provided over a long period of time. Over the years, the interventions have evolved and changed the modus operandi. Due to the increasing nature of the humanitarian needs, a significant number of cash transferring interventions were introduced.
Even though the humanitarian support has had an effort of making the supported communities depend on aid, it is widely believed that the cash interventions have worsened the situation. This has to a considerable level reduced the productivity of most communities and lessened their exploration of alternative sources of livelihoods. In an attempt to initiate and trigger significant development from the lowest communal level, NEXUS seeks to eradicate the dependency of communities on humanitarian aid. This is seen as an effort to free the communities from the “imaginary cuffs” of dependency and unlock their economic potential. In light of this, NEXUS aims at contracting a consultant to undertake a participatory action research intended to unveil the root causes of humanitarian aid dependency, level and scope of dependency created by unconditional cash disbursement, figure out ways to enhance the resilience of agro-pastoral communities, and hence put forth interventions that will minimize the said dependency.
Despite all the challenges faced by Somalia, the global climate change has not spared it. The country is grappling with its fair share of the ordeal. Some of the notable effects of climate change in Somalia include prolonged droughts, erratic and sporadic rainfall causing devastating flash floods while disrupting crop farming, inadequate vegetative resources that endangers the lives of livestock and wildlife as well as causing human conflicts, disrupted oceanic biodiversity that negatively affects the associated economic activities, crop and livestock pests and diseases. The combined impacts of these climate change effects have a considerable level of influence on economic performance, human settlement and displacement, peace and cohesion and a general biodiversity balance. NEXUS in its efforts to achieve its main goal, seeks to contract a consultant to assess the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity, livestock management, environmental conservation, study and unveils disaster risk reduction possibilities, as well as existing early warning signs and how to improve them.
NEXUS recognizes the level of negative impacts that dependency on humanitarian aid and climate change have on Somalia. The platform aims at uncovering the underlying factors that propagate the thriving of the two. It intends to share the findings widely with all relevant stakeholders in the country while asking members to capitalize on them by designing context-specific programs that enforce the recommendations.
Through these efforts, NEXUS believes that a smorgasbord of factors dragging the country back will be identified and collectively addressed.
3.Practical remedies for climate change and humanitarian aid dependency
To undertake a participatory action research (PAR) on humanitarian aid dependency and the impacts of climate change in Somalia and produce a clear representation of the actual statuses while putting forth innovative, practical and context-specific remedies that will trigger and maintain a positive change for recovery and development.
The proposed remedial measures should be innovative for adoption and use by different range of actors including local authorities, communities and development partners. The recommendations will also be required to be relevant and effective in addressing the need for inclusion especially of the socially marginalized groups women and persons and also in supporting the triple nexus approach on humanitarian, development and peace requirements of communities in Somalia.
3.2 Evaluation Objectives
The main objective is to undertake participatory action research on dependency on humanitarian aid and climate change impacts and provide clear, innovative and practical remedies. To this purpose, the consultant is expected;
- Assess the level and scope of dependency of Somalis on general humanitarian aid as well as on unconditional cash transfer programs
- Determine the root causes of dependency on humanitarian needs the extent of each cause’s influence on the targeted communities
- Assess the impacts of climate change on agricultural and livestock productivity and the environment.
- Asses the level of environmental degradation and the existing local environmental conservation efforts, if any.
- Assess the communities’ vulnerabilities to natural disasters and existing reduction efforts.
- Determine whether there are any early warning signs available both traditionally or through the support of an organization
- To assess the level of livelihood diversification with comparison to locally available economic opportunities
- To determine how to enhance livelihood diversification among communities with priorities on locally available opportunities
- To determine through in-depth analysis of primary data, ways to enhance the resilience of agro-pastoral communities against climate change and dependency on humanitarian aid
- To provide contextually relevant remedial interventions to minimize the dependency of communities on humanitarian aid
The consultant will conduct the research using methodology and tools adequate for this kind of research according to the international standards, agreed on in consultation with NEXUS and compile a report, analyzing the data collected from parties served by member organizations, and through direct interviews with various relevant stakeholders. The consultant is required to use a mix of methodologies to achieve the outcomes expected from this assignment. The approach will include as a minimum: –
- Desk Review
- Interviews with key community members
- Interviews with key NEXUS partners and other civil society organizations
- Meetings/interviews with development actors (Ministries, Local Authorities, INGOs, relevant UN bodies)
- Field Visits and interviews to sample beneficiaries
- Report Writing
Interested consultants and firms should demonstrate at least 7 years’ experience in research and climate change and implementation of similar projects and strategies especially within Somalia or agro-pastoral context. The consultants or firms should clearly indicate the lead and co-consultant to undertake the assignment and provide supportive CVs indicating the level of qualifications and years of experience in relevant participatory development field and approaches. Experience working with government on local development planning will be considered crucial in this assignment.
6.Planned Assignment Deliverables
The following will be the key assignment deliverables: –
- An Expression of Interest (EOI)
- Research questionnaires for the subjects being addressed
- An inception report (with clear milestones and timelines).
- Filled in questionnaires
- A Report on the research findings and remedial actions
7.Assignment Duration/ Reporting/Supervision
The duration of the assignment will be 25 days with an inception report being shared for discussion with NEXUS members within 5 days after the signing of the agreement. NEXUS Consortium Manager will be the overall supervisor and liaison/contact person for the engagement.
|Proposed Activity||Proposed Days||Party Responsible|
|EOI approval by NEXUS chair and signing of the Assignment contract by SSWC||Day 1||NEXUS Consortium Chairperson/SSWC.|
|Kick-off meeting (NEXUS Members and Consultants)||Day 2||NEXUS Consortium Secretariat/Chairperson.|
|Undertaking the participatory research action||Day 3-20||NEXUS Consortium Secretariat and Consultants.|
|Submission of report on research findings and validation workshop and feedback from members (4 days for the workshop including 1 day for preparation after submission).||Day 21-30||NEXUS Consortium Secretariat and Consultants.|
|Submission of final research findings||NEXUS Consortium Secretariat and Consultants.|
9.How to apply
Interested consultants and consultancy firms are requested to submit the following documents: –
- An expression of interest (EoI) or Technical Proposal indicating understanding of the assignment, detailing the experience in undertake a similar assignment in the past within Somalia context and indicating why the consultant or firm thinks it is suitable to undertake the assignment.
- A workplan/timeline for the assignment
- Financial Proposal
- CVs of the lead and co-lead consultant.
- Certificate of Registration with relevant authorities in Somalia.
Interested Consultants and firms should submit their EOI and other documents in PDF format to email@example.com and cc firstname.lastname@example.org by 9th March 2021