Research Consultancy: Insecure Futures: Non-Syrian Refugees in Turkey



Turkey continues to host the largest number of refugees in the world, with over 3.7 million registered Syrians under Temporary protection. In addition, Turkey also hosts at least 330,000 persons of concern under international protection from other countries including Iraq, the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, and Somalia. In 2021, Afghans specifically made up 75% of international protection status applications. Moreover, along with those registered in Turkey, either under Temporary or International Protection, it is estimated that there are at least one million unregistered asylum-seekers in Turkey.

Whilst significant research has been dedicated to the protection needs of Syrian refugees in Turkey, less research has placed emphasis on the lives of non-Syrian refugees, and their needs and futures. Previous DRC research conducted in 2021, which examined the intentions of refugees in Turkey, found that non-Syrian refugees predominantly want to resettle in a third country. However, considering that rates of resettlement are marginal in comparison to the number of refugees in Turkey, and the clandestine routes to move further are extremely dangerous, it can be assumed that for the foreseeable future the majority of refugees will stay in Turkey. However, little information exists on the protection risks faced by non-Syrian refugees in Turkey, as well as the support they receive from (I)NGOs. This study, therefore, seeks to contribute to filling this knowledge gap.

2. The project

DRC has operated in Turkey since 2013 with the aim to enhance the capacities and self-reliance of refugees and the affected host communities. As the conflict stretches on in Syria, DRC remains committed to developing long-term solutions that serve the needs of the 3.7 million displaced Syrians currently living in Turkey. DRC operates in the southeast provinces, which host some of the highest numbers of Syrian refugees, second after Istanbul, namely Hatay, Şanlıurfa, Kilis, and Kahramanmaraş in addition to serving refugees in other provinces by working with local civil society partners. Moreover, DRC adheres to the “one refugee” approach and provides services to all refugees regardless of nationality. In line with DRC’s Global 2025 Strategy, DRC Turkey aims to increase protection and enhance inclusion for all displaced and vulnerable communities, particularly from countries including, but not limited to, Afghanistan, Iran, and, Iraq.

With funding from the Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO), the Danish Refugee Council (DRC) is addressing the risks faced by refugees in Turkey, including through sharing key information, providing specialized services, conducting research into pressing protection-related topics, and building the capacities of key stakeholders to respond to protection risks. Through the project, DRC is:

1- Disseminating information on key protection topics to refugees and vulnerable persons in situations of mixed migration, including legal rights awareness raising, GBV sensitization and awareness, psycho-social education, and travel safety information.

2- Providing specialized protection services, including tailored case management services, individual protection assistance,

3- response to GBV, support with legal documentation, counselling and representation services, and a dedicated legal helpdesk.

4- Capacity building and structural and organizational support for local organizations, civil society and governmental service providers.

5- Thematic protection research and dissemination with donors and responsible national and international stakeholders.

3. The research

Under the research component of this project, DRC is looking to outsource a research study to better understand the specific needs, risks, and vulnerabilities of non-Syrian refugees in Turkey. Publicly available quantitative and qualitative data on non-Syrian refugees’ protection needs and living conditions is limited, which affects the monitoring efforts of international and national (I)NGOs. Moreover, there exists limited understanding of the current response towards non-Syrian refugees, and their access to receive assistance from (I)NGOs.

The research will be conducted through a combination of secondary data as well as primary data collection. Primary data collection will seek to reach as wide a range of refugee respondents as possible, using quantitative methods of data gathering and analysis. In total, at least 700 surveys will be conducted across refugee groups (namely Afghans, Iraqis, and Iranians) and geographic locations, with a specific focus on the provinces where non-Syrian refugees are concentrated. To complement the quantitative data, in-depth key informant interviews and focus groups discussion (FGDs) with both relevant (I)NGOs and refugees will be conducted. To further ensure representativeness, respondents will include a diversity of profiles regarding different ages, gender, provinces, and registration status.

The overarching question the research will seek to answer is the following: What are the specific needs/risks/vulnerabilities that non-Syrian refugees face in Turkey?

More specifically, the research will aim to answer the following questions:

  1. What are the protection risks and vulnerabilities that non-Syrian refugees in Turkey face?

a) What are the main barriers to applying for international protection?

b) What are the main barriers to accessing legal/civil documentation?

c) What is the prevalence of child marriage and child labour?

d) What is the prevalence of gender based violence? What barriers are faced to accessing support services?

e) How many non-Syrian refugees are enrolled in education (primary, secondary, tertiary)? What are the barriers in accessing formal education?

  1. What are the barriers non-Syrian refugees face in accessing services?

a) What are some of the barriers – and mitigating strategies – for accessing healthcare services for non-Syrians?

b) What are the barriers non-Syrian refugees face in accessing public services?

c) What are the barriers non-Syrian refugees face in accessing (I)NGO services?

d) To what extent are non-Syrian refugees able to cover their basic needs/monthly expenses?

e) How many non-Syrian refugees are receiving ESSN? What are the barriers to receiving ESSN?

f) What barriers do non-Syrian refugees face in accessing the formal labor market? How many are formally employed in Turkey? How many are informally employed?

  1. In which provinces do non-Syrian refugees mainly reside? In which provinces do they want to reside in?

a) Are non-Syrian refugees residing in the province in which they are registered (if registered)?

b) Are non-Syrian refugees being granted access for travel permission and transfer of registration?

  1. How do non-Syrian refugees perceive social cohesion in Turkey? What experiences have shaped their process of integration? Do they face discrimination? If so, in which ways?
  2. What are the key barriers that I/NGOs face in providing assistance to non-Syrian refugees?


1. Scope of work

The consultants will work under the supervision of, and in close collaboration with, DRC Turkey’s Protection Research Specialist, Protection Coordinator and Head of Programme. They may also engage with DRC’s technical and management staff at the country level as needed.

Geographically, the consultancy will cover all of Turkey, with a specific focus on the provinces where non-Syrian refugees are concentrated. The data collection, analysis, and reporting exercise will entail the following:

  1. Desk review of existing literature: summarize relevant findings and update the existing conclusions taking into account the current situation and needs of non-Syrian refugees.
  2. Sample design including a clear strategy for identifying/reaching respondents.
  3. In consultation with the DRC team, propose survey questions, sampling technique, and data gathering approach best suited to answer the overarching objectives of this research.
  4. Collect data – through anonymized surveys – with the chosen sample of non-Syrian refugees residing in Turkey. Where relevant, key informant interviews may be conducted to further elaborate certain areas of the research.
  5. Analyze primary data, including survey responses and, where relevant, key informant and focus group responses, quantifying and disaggregating responses according to refugee population, geographic location(s), age, gender, and other diversity markers, including qualitative observations where relevant and/or necessary.
  6. Draft research paper detailing disaggregated findings, along with specific policy and programmatic recommendations for DRC and the humanitarian response sector in Turkey.

2. The deliverables

The deliverables of this consultancy will be as follows:

I. The Inception Report including the literature review, explaining the research methodology, and the sample design.

II. Draft of tools (interview questions, survey, etc.) used for primary data collection for review and approval by DRC staff

III. Draft assessment report presenting the findings for comments

IV. Final report in English incorporating comments from DRC. The report should include the following sections as minimum requirements:

a. Executive Summary

b. Research methodology

c. Literature review

d. Section-by section (according to areas of main needs/protection risks) presentation of findings, disaggregated by refugee population, geographic location, age gender, nationality and other diversity markers. Presentation of findings should include infographics, tables and graphs, as relevant to the finding.

e. Recommendations for program implementation (refer to project components in the first section)

f. Recommendations for the wider humanitarian sector, donor community and the Turkish government.

g. Any relevant annexes (survey, references, etc)


The successful applicant will be a reputable independent consultant or local or international firm with demonstrable experience in humanitarian data analysis and research, with preference for relevant such experience in the Turkey context. Some of the key requirements are:

At least 5 years of experience in conducting research and studies focusing on refugees, durable solutions, and humanitarian response and policy framework; advanced skills in research design and methods, including data collection, analysis, and reporting.

Strong communication skills (oral and written) in English; enumerator knowledge of Pashto, Persian, Dari, and Arabic is required to conduct surveys/interviews

Excellent analytical, interpersonal, communication and reporting skills;

Experience of working in Turkey and in the humanitarian context

Proven experience in the areas of displacement and integration, solutions programming, and working with humanitarian organizations


DRC Annexes: Supplier Registration form, Supplier Code of Conduct, and General Condition of Contract.

Research proposal, briefly outlining the proposed methodology for the work

A short work plan for the consultancy (see timeline above)

A CV demonstrating relevant experience to the project, including two referees

Two samples of comparable work

Budget covering all fees and expenses, which details costs required for each component of the assessment and deliverables

At least 2 positive references related to relevant work previously conducted


· Administrative Evaluation

A bid shall pass the administrative evaluation stage before being considered for technical and financial evaluation.

Bids that are deemed administratively non-compliant may be rejected. Documents listed above shall be submitted with your bid

· Technical/financial Evaluation

Technical/Finance proportion: 80/20 Minimum passing technical score 60/100

The technical criteria for this consultancy has been stated in the RFP Invitation Letter.

Technically compliant Bidders will be invited for an Evaluation panel interview (additional points will be added to bid analysis) where Panel will ask several questions related to the categories listed below:

  • English language skills – Max. 10 points
  • Previous experience of research and analysis conducted in complex humanitarian setting – Max. 10 points
  • Level of experience in advertised consultancy – Max. 10 points
  • Explanation of proposed methodology – Max. 10 points
  • Ability/expertise to identify respondents and to conduct research and analysis– Max. 10 points

· Financial Evaluation: the total amount of points allocated for the financial scoring component is 20. The maximum number of points will be allotted to the lowest priced proposal that is opened and compared among those firms/institutions, which obtain the threshold points in the evaluation of the technical component. All other price proposals will receive points in proportion to the lowest financial proposal using the inverse proportion principle: (lower bid price) *(fin_weighting_proportion) / (second cheapest technically compliant bid).

How to apply

Please click here to reach all the tender documents including Annex A.1 Terms of References.

RFP Issuing Date: 06 April 2022

RFP Closure Date: 27-04-2022 12:30 pm Turkey Time

Complete Tender Documents may be also obtained by e-mail from

Please mention in the subject line as

RFQ-TUR-004381 Research Consultancy: Insecure Futures: Non-Syrian Refugees in Turkey

Questions can be addressed to the above email until 25-04-2022 at 15:00 pm Turkey Time

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