Consultancy: Multi-Sector Needs Assessment in Jubbaland, Puntland, South West State and Somaliland

Location: Somalia

Duration: 21 working days

Critical interface: Country Office Monitoring and Evaluation Manager

Consultancy type International/ Local

Travel: Travel required for this consultancy


Protracted insecurity and recurrent violence in some parts of Somalia, and frequent climatic shocks in several parts of the country, remain the key drivers of displacement. The volatile security situation in parts of southern and central regions is causing loss of life, trade and market disruptions, and continued restrictions to humanitarian access and normal population movement. However, the humanitarian situation in the country continued to improve in 2018 due to good Gu rains in March to June/July, and a famine was successfully averted because of the collective efforts from Somali authorities, national and international partners, and the diaspora.

After a prolonged period of drought, lasting four seasons, the above-average Gu rainfall in the first half of 2018 resulted in the best harvests in nearly a decade. This, in combination with the timely and scaled up response by the government and humanitarian partners, and the transfers provided by the diaspora, had a positive effect on the food security situation in the country[1]. 2019 also had a relatively better rainfall and continued to slightly improve the situation.

The 2020 Gu season exhibited erratic performance. The rains started as early as late March in many parts of Somalia, then intensified and expanded in April, with heavy rain leading to riverine and flash floods. However, rainfall in May was widely below average. Severe riverine and flash floods in April and early May caused significant population displacement and damage to property, infrastructure, farmland, and crops. Atypically heavy rain since July led to further riverine flooding and flood-related damage. Overall, however, the Hagga/Karan (July-September) rains have been mostly favorable in agropastoral and pastoral livelihood zones.[2]

The situation was compounded by the effects of locust nationwide infestation that started in September 2019 through to the latter half of 2020. The first wave of locust started in Berbera moving to neighboring regions, namely Awdal and Sanaag. In October – November 2019, it continued moving South-ward reaching Togdheer, Sool, Nugal, Mudug and Galgaduud. By December 2019 – January 2020, it reached as far as Bakool, Bay and Gedo regions. Similarly, second wave of locusts again started at the Northern parts in November-December 2019 and reached central regions by January-February 2020. As of March, 11 districts confirmed still having locust swarms (Belethawo, Berbera, Boocame, Borama, Dollow, Elwak, Hudur, Laskoray, Luuq, Wajid and Zeila); 14 districts confirmed having hoppers (Bardera, Belethawo, Berbera, Borama[3]. This has resulted in significant losses on Grazing and croplands which risked the livelihoods of Agro pastoralists and pastoralists who depend on subsistence cropping and livestock rearing.[4]

In summary, 2.1 million people across Somalia were predicted to face Crisis or worse (IPC Phase 3 or higher) outcomes towards December without sustained humanitarian assistance. An additional 3 million people are expected to be Stressed (IPC Phase 2), bringing the total number of people facing acute food insecurity to 5.1 million. Humanitarian assistance must be sustained through December 2020 to prevent Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or Emergency (IPC Phase 4) outcomes for 2.1 million people. Livelihoods support is also required for people that are Stressed or worse (IPC Phase 2 or higher).[5]

With the vast and yet increasing needs of IDP population and other vulnerable groups affected by displacement, up-to-date information on the humanitarian situation, across the country is of crucial importance for NRC in order to inform the design and execution of programs that contribute to meaningful short to medium term changes while at the same time addressing most urgent humanitarian needs in line with the country’s Humanitarian Response Plan. To this end, NRC Somalia set out this Multi-Sectoral Needs Assessment nationwide with specific focus on locations that are either in Stress or Crisis phase according to the IPC phase classification of FSNAU – FAO. In addition, locations that are relatively in a better condition and are likely to receive IDPs were included in the sample.


The primary objective of this yearly assessment exercise is to map the overall humanitarian needs in Somalia in the face of protracted displacement crisis exacerbated by back to back emergencies that engulfed the country over the past 5-7 years. Secondly, it aims to provide an analytical insight as to where different needs lie and in what scale so that relevant NRC program sectors can prioritize, plan and respond.

The specific objectives are:

  1. To provide an empirical overview of the status and developments regarding humanitarian needs across Somalia in light of the accessibility to basic services.
  2. To enable evidence based engagement with the donor and partners in the humanitarian sector.
  3. To feed and strengthen advocacy efforts.
  4. To support better planning and implementation of emergency and longer term programs by allocating scarce resources based on need and community capacity.


Assessment methodology will be mainly household quantitative surveys and to a lesser extent Key Informant Interviews and Focus Group Discussions in districts targeted for the exercises. The formula to calculate sample size per individual target district is 95% Confidence level, 10% margin of error. The sampling frame will be made up of ‘People affected by displacement’ i.e. IDPs, Host Community, Refugees and Returnees. Sampling formula will be applied exclusively to each districts and not to the aggregate population of target districts. Locations will be selected based on latest 2021 IPC report issued by FSNAU (Food Security and Nutritional Analysis Unit) which identifies drought hotspots and locations that are/would likely develop into ‘crisis’ or ‘stressed’ phase. Data collection will be through smart mobile devices registered on a digital data management platform.

It is important that samples are distributed to all Area Offices – 1 – 3 per Area Office.


All questionnaires and interviews will open with statement aimed at obtaining the consent of the interviewee(s). Potential respondents will be briefed about the purpose of the survey, the confidentiality and anonymity and that it is 100% voluntary. The interviewer will then expressly seek their consent to participate in the survey. Respondents who decline to participate will respectfully be left out.


The assessment will be centred on the 5 core competencies of NRC in order to maintain relevance with NRC overall program policy. Below are key priorities for each of the competencies based on which data is to be collected.

to see the table click here

NRC Responsibilities

  1. Adherence to the contract terms and conditions
  2. Oversight of the exercise
  3. Develop jointly with the service provider assessment questions and refine indicators
  4. Work with the service provider on the preparation of tools, selection of sampling and data gathering methodologies.
  5. Sign-off technical plan/proposal
  6. Sign-off tools before deployed for fieldwork
  7. Participate in validation workshop to give feedback and endorse assessment findings
  8. Assign a focal point that regularly liaises with the service provider

Expected Deliverables

  1. Technical Proposal including work plan
  2. Assessment indicators
  3. Desk review report
  4. Data collection tools
  5. Preliminary findings for initial review
  6. Validation Workshop
  7. Raw data for storage with NRC
  8. Final report issued and provided as a result of which;

a. NRC team will have identified community needs and priorities in target locations to use it as a basis for immediate response programs and strategy revision.

b. NRC will obtain first-hand representative information on IDPs in target locations, that is useable for program and advocacy efforts.


The deliverables will be approved by the NRC Country Office M&E Manager. The consultant/firm will be expected to arrange and cover the costs of consultancy fee, field work and other logistics associated with the assignment. NRC will provide useful project documents that will inform this exercise.


The work is expected to be completed in 21 working days – the exact timing will depend on the final agreement with NRC.


  1. The consultancy firm must be registered with all relevant authorities and specializes in conducting qualitative and quantitative research.
  2. The consultancy firm must have more than 7 years’ experience of conducting a variety of surveys in Somalia/Somaliland.
  3. The consultancy firm must demonstrate ability to field experienced teams to conduct face-to-face interviews in Somalia/Somaliland.
  4. The consultancy firm has impeccable record of confidentiality and sensitivity, and be able and willing to handle sensitive information, ensuring anonymity of respondents whilst safeguarding access to the raw data for partners stated in this Terms of Reference.
  5. The consultancy firm can demonstrate sound financial accountability.
  6. The consultancy firm be able to use to a high level, data entry and data analysing software such as CS Pro and SPSS, and be able to provide visual graphics of data, such as charts produced in Microsoft Excel. Experience in graphic design will be an advantage, but not required.
  7. The consultancy firm has a good track record of working with international organisations such as international NGOs or the UN in Somalia; in particular, a good track record in previous work with NRC is required.


  • Inception Meeting with NRC
  • Inception report
  • Desk review of relevant project documents
  • Development, pre-testing and validation of the survey questionnaire
  • Finalization of assessment tools including scripting of questions on ODK/Kobo tools, if applicable.
  • Data collection
  • Data analysis and preparation of the draft report
  • Validation of draft report
  • Final Report and PowerPoint presentation

[1] NRC Somalia Country Strategy 2018 – 2020

[2] FSNAU-FEWS NET-2020-Post-Gu-Technical-Release-30-September-2020

[3] Desert Locust Outbreak Needs Assessment – March 2020

[4] NRC RAPID Locust Needs Assessment Southcentral Somalia – May 2020

[5] FSNAU-FEWS NET-2020-Post-Gu-Technical-Release-30-September-2020

How to apply

Application procedures and requirements

The consultant/consulting firm interested are expected to provide following documentation:

  1. A cover letter introducing the consultant. In the case of a firm, the cover letter should introduce the team composition and specifying the role to be played by each team member.
  2. A technical proposal of not more than 10 pages outlining how to execute the task with a clear framework, methodology and timelines. Proposed methodology should demonstrate a clear understanding of the ToR (sampling framework, data collection strategy/methods)
  3. Resume of the consultant, or each team member for firm
  4. Evidence of experience conducting similar assignments
  5. Proposed budget indicating consultancy fee, costs of enumerators/ data collection, and all other auxiliary costs in USD.

All applications should be addressed to on or before 28th September 2021, referencing ‘*Multi-sector survey in Somalia*’ in the subject of the email.

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