Consultancy: Case Study of the Factors and Dynamics Underpinning Eviction Phenomenon in Baidoa, Somalia

Location: Somalia

Duration: 45 working days

Critical interface: Head of Programme, ICLA Specialist, Durable Solutions Manager, Area

Managers, HLP focal points

Consultancy type: International

Travel: No travel required for this consultancy

Background and Context

Somalia represents one of the world’s most complex and long-standing humanitarian crises, where virtually 20 per cent of the population is currently displaced and a third in urgent need of humanitarian aid.[1] Although concerted efforts by the government and international partners have positioned Somalia on a positive trajectory towards recovery, the legacy of protracted instability is being exacerbated by intermittent climatic shocks, insecurity, and evictions. Forced evictions remain among the most severe and prevalent protection threats in Somalia, representing both a cause and a multiplier of the displacement crises. Congested cities with weak urban systems are struggling to cope as the complex interplay between natural hazards, climatic shocks, conflict and insecurity continues to drive mass displacements across the country. Between January and November 2019, the Protection and Returns Monitoring Network (PRMN) reported 709,000 new displacements within Somalia, a number approaching the 884,000 recorded in 2018,[2] and a contributing factor in Somalia’s highly accelerated rate of urbanisation.[3] Baidoa was the single largest host of drought displaced persons in 2017[4], the majority of whom were forced to either create new unplanned sites or join existing settlements due to limited absorption capacity. The HLP Sub Cluster systematically documented the forced eviction of 25,722 individuals in 2019 and 19,140 as of June 2020, thus representing the second most affected region in Somalia.

Baidoa, both a State and District capital with an estimated population of 130,000[5], represents a quintessence of the dynamics and challenges confronting displaced population across Somalia and is also prone to changes in power dynamics due to an evolving political governance. As Baidoa expand and competition for resources increases, IDPs are typically being transformed into the urban poor, integrated into chronically poor host communities or desolate settlements with few livelihood options or opportunities. IDPs and other marginalised communities remain exposed to the ongoing threats of eviction due to the informal nature of housing in Somalia combined with the absence of adequate HLP regulatory frameworks and limited government capacity in leading eviction-prevention initiatives. These intertwining dynamics and persistent negative trends continue to weaken the overall protective environment, undermine humanitarian investments, and precipitate protection challenges spanning the safety, health, dignity and livelihoods of displaced communities in Baidoa. IDPs remain disproportionately affected across the city, particularly women and children who constitute the most vulnerable substratum of the population.

Noticeable progress has been made to address the issue of forced evictions in Baidoa, including the adoption of a moratorium prohibiting evictions during the Covid-19 crisis and the establishment of a Taskforce to enhance eviction prevention and response capacity, but the underlying factors persist. Eviction as a problematic phenomenon remains a foundational imperative to addressing the issue of displacement in a realistic, comprehensive and sustainable way. To achieve this, an important first step is to gain a deeper and more balanced understanding of the underlying intricacies. It is against this backdrop that the current study has been commissioned.

Objectives and Scope

Building on the land governance analysis, this study will explore comprehensively why eviction continues to thrive, and then take a deep-dive review of the adequacy of ongoing efforts or the inadequacy thereof in order to better understand the eviction phenomenon and advance practical policy solutions to address the problem at different levels. Specific objectives include:

  • Assess and catalogue existing legal, administrative and policy frameworks that are applicable or relevant to the protection of general HLP rights, but with a thematic emphasis on evictions.
  • Analyse the cultural factors and other broader societal dynamics fuelling, promoting and/or sustaining the eviction phenomenon.
  • Conduct a comprehensive stakeholder analysis of the groups that are influencing or could influence, positively or negatively, decisions, policy development and policy actions, and/or the implementation of such initiatives.
  • Assess the appropriateness, adequacy, relevance and effectiveness of ongoing eviction programmes. What is working, what are the gaps, what can be improved, and what needs to be incorporated?
  • Analyse the correlation or general sociological interplay between persistent threats of eviction, and the ability, potential or livelihood of displaced communities achieving durable solutions.
  • Examine the lack of improved tenure security, which directly constitutes a threat of eviction, and access to livelihood and shelter assistance.
  • Formulate a logical estimation of the loss in humanitarian investments due to evictions.
  • Analyse the interest, roles, responsibilities and perceptions among landowners, government, private sector, development and humanitarian stakeholders, and the affected populations regarding eviction. From their perspectives, what do they think and how do they think the problem can be addressed?
  • Advance practical and pragmatic recommendations to effectively address the eviction phenomenon in Baidoa. Recommendations should cover gaps, deficiencies and other inadequacies identified for each of the objectives afore-particularised.

As part of the deliverables outlined above, the study will equally explored, document and analyse intertwining aspects related to the political economy of land and evitions, as well as the roles and responsibilities of relevant actors.

Proposed Methodology[6]

The methods expected of the consultant would embody a comprehensive desk review of relevant literatures, published reports and statistics, analysis of raw datasets[7], as well as the conduct of key informant interviews. The information gathered would be extensively analysed from different perspectives while employing multiple techniques and statistical procedures. To gauge the perception, the consultant will be required to survey a purposively sampled number of key government, development, private sector, humanitarian and community stakeholders, including cluster coordinators. The expected sample frame shall encompass but not be limited to:

o Heads of local government agencies whose responsibilities are linked to the promotion or protection of HLP rights

o Heads of agencies of local government that are responsible for or involved eviction prevention and response.

o Senior officials of the municipality of Baidoa

o Landlords

o A cross-section of settlement leaders

o Representatives of humanitarian organisations

o Cluster and sub-cluster coordinators

o Selected members of the Bay Eviction Taskforce

o The HLP sub-cluster

o Representatives of the Danwadaag consortium

o Representatives of development actors and the private sector

o Urban planners

o Etc.

Expected Deliverables

o A comprehensive report of not more than 30 pages consisting of a cover page, table of content with figures tagging, an executive summary, report details interspersed with data visualisation charts and graphs, key findings and recommendation reflecting

o A condense 3-pager of the executive summary and key finds and recommendations for advocacy purposes

o Not less than 10 pages a PowerPoint presentation

o All of the data collection tools and data collected (raw, summarized or otherwise)

Desired Profile and expertise

The consultant will work in close collaboration with the NRC HLP team and the partner organizations of the Danwadaag Consortium. The consultant will have multi-disciplinary expertise with proven research experience and relevant expertise in data and protection/legal analysis. The following are the desired profile and qualification requirements.

o Advanced degree/MSc degree Law, Social Science, Development Studies, Public Policy Management, and other related fields.

o Not less than 3 consecutive years’ experience of conducting legal and protection analysis, research and programme development.

o A demonstrated track record of carrying out a similar type of assessments (sample to be attached when applying).

o Excellent analytical and writing skills.

o Familiarity with the socio-political and humanitarian trends in Somalia. A working knowledge of the local language will be an asset.

o A solid and diversified experience within the Protection or legal aid sector will be desirable.

Tentative Schedule

o Inception Meeting with the research steering committee

o Inception report

o Desk review of relevant literature, reports, statistics and datasets

o Development, pre-testing and validation of the survey questionnaire

o Finalization of assessment tools including scripting of questions on ODK/Kobo tools, if applicable.

o Data collection – to be carried out remotely or through an alternative arrangement with infield staff

o Data analysis and preparation of the draft report

o Validation of draft report

o Final Report

o 3-pager executive summary and recommendations

o PowerPoint presentation

Note: The timeframe for each activity and deliverable will be agreed with the consultant.

[1] OCHA (2019) Somalia 2019 Humanitarian Response Plan:…

[2] UNHCR and NRC (2019) Protection and Return Monitoring Network:

[3] UNSOM (2019) Towards Sustainable Urban Development in Somalia and IDP Durable Solutions at Scale:…

[4] 17 Drought displacements in the period 1 Nov 2016 to 30 April 2017, 9 May 2017, p.2, available at…

[5] World Population Review – Population of Cities in Somalia (2020):

[6] The methodology defined in this ToR represents only a generic direction. Specific technical details and ethical standards will be clearly articulated in the inception report.

[7] Datasets in this context shall include i) eviction monitoring, ii) prevention data dumb, eviction risk and settlement geo-mapping data.

How to apply

Application procedure

  • Interested and qualified consultants who meet the qualification and experience outlined should download the RFQ package
  • Questions: All questions would be received in writing and sent to on or before 9 September.
  • Submission: Completed technical, financial proposal and the Request for quotation form (RFQ) should be sent to on or before 9th September 2020, referencing ‘In-depth analysis of the factors and dynamics underpinning eviction phenomenon in Baidoa’ in the subject of the email.
  • All Bids should include:
  • A cover letter introducing the consultant. In the case of a firm, the cover letter should introduce the team composition and specifying the role to be played by each team member.
  • A technical proposal of not more than 5 pages outlining how to execute the task with a clear framework, methodology and timelines. Proposed methodology should demonstrate a clear understanding of the ToR (sampling framework, data collection strategy/methods.
  • Resume of the consultant, or each team member for firms
  • Evidence of experience conducting similar assignments
  • Proposed budget indicating consultancy fee and all auxiliary costs in USD.
  • Submission email:
  • Deadline of submission: 9th September 2020

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